We do qualitative research in education, child development and women’s empowerment. Since 1996 our work has been published widely and we have been pioneers in researching gender and social equity issues that frame educational access and the complex inter-linkages between heath and education.

We specialise in process documentation and have documented many path-breaking initiatives in women’s empowerment, girls’ education and elementary / secondary education in India and in the South Asian region.

We undertake impact assessment, evaluation and manage large scale programme reviews for the government, multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organisations and foundations.

We work with schools to help them connect with their vision and goals.

We work with the government and other development agencies to design and develop educational and empowerment programmes.


Research & Documentation

  • 2013-2014 Mac Arthur Foundation, Chicago and New Delhi: A study of women teachers and achievement of gender ad equity goals in secondary education in Rajasthan, India.
  • 2011-2012 Sir Ratan Tata Trust, Mumbai. Impact assessment and ongoing concurrent review of education projects supported in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • 2011-2012 Room to Read, Asia Regional Office, New Delhi. Capacity building and training for process documentation for their Literacy Programme in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
  • 2010-2011 Save the children, Bal Raksha Bharat, New Delhi: Documentation of best practices in school management with special emphasis on quality inclusive governance and decentralised management.
  • 2010 Save the children, Bal Raksha Bharat, New Delhi: Convergence to improve child survival in India – a research study.
  • 2009-2010 Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: Assessing the coverage and effectiveness of national efforts to provide quality maternity protection for all. A qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • 2010 Mac Arthur Foundation, New Delhi: Secondary Education of girls in India – a status report and existing opportunities.
  • 2009 UNESCO, Asia Pacific Programme for Education for All, Bangkok: Advocacy brief on Gender issues in higher education.
  • 2009 Save the Children, Bal Raksha Bharat, New Delhi: Nutrition Policy Brief. A research based advocacy brief for SC BRP, India.
  • 2009 Effective Intervention & London School of Economics (UK): Qualitative and quantitative study of situation of elementary education in Guinea Bissau.
  • 2009 UNICEF (ROSA), Kathmandu: Water, sanitation and education: exploring inclusion and exclusion – a qualitative study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh.
  • 2008-09 Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, Mumbai and Zubaan, New Delhi: Part II of Cartographies of Empowerment – Tracing the Journey of Mahila Samakhya
  • 1988 to 2008. A study conducted in partnership with Mahila Samakhya units in 9 States of India and ten research partners.
  • 2008 Plan International, India, Baseline survey of elementary schools in Bihar & Uttar Pradesh
  • 2008 Save the Children (UK), Scoping study on nutritional status of children and opportunities for improving the nutritional levels of children in India.
  • 2007-08 Plan International, India, Baseline survey of primary schools in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Uttarakhand
  • 2007-08 Azim Premji Foundation, Teacher development in India – mapping the terrain. (contemporary history of teacher development in India)
  • 2007 UNICEF ROSA, Kathmandu, Girls health and education in South Asia – a research based study on the situation in 8 countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka).
  • 2007 Oxfam, India: Basic Education in India – the situation on the ground and exploring possibilities for intervention.
  • 2006-07 NUEPA, UNESCO and Department of Education, MHRD, GOI, Mid-term Assessment of MDG goals and EFA – three chapters (a) Progress made in Uttar Pradesh by Nishi Mehrotra, (b) Progress made in Andhra Pradesh by Kameshwari Jandhyala and (c) Thematic review of Education and Equity by Vimala Ramachandran.
  • 2006-07 Plan International India, New Delhi, Research study on the Hidden Cost of Education in 4 states – Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan.
  • 2005-2007 International Labour Organisation, New Delhi and Government of India, Department of School Education and Literacy, New Delhi: Improving the quality of education in government schools – caste studies of programmes with potential for replication covering Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Assam, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh etc.
  • 2005-2006 Royal Netherlands Embassy, New Delhi: Cartographies of Empowerment – Tracing the Journey of Mahila Samakhya 1988 to 2005. A study conducted in partnership with Mahila Samakhya units in 9 States of India and ten research partners.
  • 2004-05 Oxfam N(O)VIB: Systemic issues and strategies to promote equity and quality in elementary education – a qualitative research study in Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • 2004-05 Knowledge and Skills for Development and IDS Sussex: the India study in Rajasthan, part of a multi-country study on Teacher Motivation (Elementary Education).
  • 2004 World Bank, Study on Positive deviance in ICDS – exploring the factors that contribute towards better performance of the programme in select development blocks of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • 2003 DFID, India: An evaluation of Balika Shikshan Shivir (residential educational programme for out of school girls), Lok Jumbish Project, Rajasthan.
  • 2002-03 World Bank, Qualitative research study: Factors that facilitate / impede successful primary school completion - children in diverse poverty situations in Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • 2000-01 DFID, on approval of DPEP Bureau, GOI, Backward and forward linkages – ten case studies in primary education.
  • 2000 NIEPA and European Commission, Community Participation in Primary Education with special focus on innovations in Rajasthan.
  • 1999-2000 Department of Education, GOI and NIEPA (as a part of the EFA 2000), Assessment Education and the status of women, exploring linkages and identifying constraints.
  • 1998 Engendering Development: Lessons from Social Sector Programmes (with special focus on primary education) in India – independent ERU research, with concrete examples from the two fields, that has fed into gender sensitisation training of a wide range of development agencies and organisations. Adapted for the education and health sector.
  • 1996 - 1997 ASPBAE, New Delhi, and UNESCO PROAP, Bangkok; Four-Country study on the status of women's and girl's education in South Asia (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal). Asia South Pacific Bureau for Adult Education. This project involved identifying teams from researchers from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal and working with them over a period of eighteen months.
  • 1996 UNDP, New Delhi, Redefining Safety Net: Inter-linkages between education, credit, women’s collective and empowerment as the safety net.
  • 1996 UNICEF and Government of Andhra Pradesh, Critical Consciousness, credit and productive assets - key to sustainable livelihood.
  • 1996 Integrating a gender concerns in mainstream programmes and institutions, UNICEF and Department of Women and Child Development, GOI. This research paper was followed by training of specific state office and area specific teams in UNICEF.

Review & Evaluation

  • 2011 Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, evaluation of select NGO programmes in Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  • 2010-11 IKEA Social Initiative, Sweden: Evaluation of the Phase I project on the elimination of girls child labour in the cotton seed sector in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh.
  • 2010 Sir Ratan Tata Trust, Mumbai: Impact assessment of Naandi Foundation primary education project in Sheopur, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • 2009 The Children’s Education Fund Foundation, UK: Qualitative concurrent review of the Aid India programme in Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2008 Room to Read, New Delhi. Impact assessment of Room to Grow scholarships for adolescent girls in Delhi and Uttarakhand.
  • 2006 & 2007 Department of Elementary Education, MHRD, Government of India: National evaluation (in 2 parts covering 24 states in India) of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidhyalaya and National Programme for Girls Education in the Elementary Sector. Vimala Ramachandran was the Team Leader and Kameshwari Jandhyala and Nishi Mehrotra were members of the evaluation team
  • 2007 Oxfam Novib, The Netherlands – Core Programme Evaluation for India – focus on education and health.
  • 2007 American India Foundation, Review of the Digital Equaliser Programme in Rajasthan, Orissa, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.
  • 2006-08 Word Bank, New Delhi, Concurrent review and documentation of a multi-sectoral child development programme in Madhya Pradesh.
  • 2006-07 Save the Children, UK: Capacity building of NGO partners in Tamil Nadu.
  • 2006 Sir Dorabji Tara Trust, Mumbai: Facilitating consultations to explore the creation of a national level institute for education in India.
  • 2006 Sardar Patel Vidhyalaya, New Delhi: Education Audit
  • 2005 Save the Children, UK: Feasibility study – exploring institutional mechanisms for integrated child development and education in the tsunami affected areas of India.
  • 2004 Oxfam Lucknow: Analysis of the education policy of Uttar Pradesh and budget analysis.
  • 2003 UNICEF - Community participation in UNICEF supported programmes in Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra.
  • 2003 SIDA, New Delhi - Appraisal of Tamil Nadu Primary School Improvement Campaign
  • 2002 European Commission and GoI - Gender and social equity in DPEP – an overall impact assessment.
  • 2001 Forut, Save the Children Fund of Norway and Sweden - The Concerned for Working Children.
  • 2000 Group of donors including Dorabji Tata Trust, Mumbai - Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan, Bhuj
  • 1999-2000 SIDA, New Delhi - Shiksha Karmi Project of Rajasthan
  • 1999 HIVOS, Bangalore - Navsarjan Trust, Ahmedabad
  • 1996 Ford Foundation, New Delhi - Multiple Action Research Group, New Delhi
  • 1996 and 2000 HIVOS, Bangalore - Agragamee, Kashipur, Orissa.

Programme Development

  • 2012 East Meets West (EMW) Foundation, Oakland, CA USA: Support in operationalisation of the SPELL India project.
  • 2007 Oxfam N(o)vib, Reformulating and training Urmul Trust, Bikaner to enable them to develop their proposal from rights based perspective.
  • 2005-07 World Bank, New Delhi, Documentation and concurrent review of a pilot project in Madhya Pradesh for integrated child development.
  • 2006 Department of Education, MHRD, GoI - Chairing and drafting of the report of the Sub-group on girls’ education for the formulation of the XI Plan.
  • 2004 Department of Education, MHRD, GoI - ERU led the teams in Gujarat and Bihar doing the national evaluation of Mahila Samakhya Programme.
  • 2004 Sesame Street, India: Background paper on status of elementary education in India.
  • 2004 Ace Global Private Limited and Delegation of the European Commission, New Delhi: Technical assistance for the identification phase of EC state partnership programme with Chhattisgarh.
  • 2004 Department of Education, GoI and UNICEF: Facilitating regional and state level planning workshops on National Programme for Girls Education at the Elementary Level (NPEGEL) for state and district level administrators.
  • 2004 Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), Vientiane, Lao PDR: Gender Audit Study of Demand Driven Approach to basic Education for All in Lao PDR.
  • 2003 UNESCO, Paris: Global Monitoring Report 2003:
    1. Gender equality in education (India) – progress in the last decade
    2. Empowering Education: the Mahila Samakhya experience
  • 2003 The World Bank:
    1. Case study of Lok Jumbish (Education for All) Project of Rajasthan as an input into the MDG report;
    2. Case study of Learning Guarantee Scheme of Government of Karnataka and Azim Premji Foundation as ain input into the MDG report;
    3. Case study of Madhya Pradesh Education Guarantee Scheme – a Social Inclusion and Empowerment Case Studies for: Shanghai Conference on Scaling up Poverty Reduction being planned by the World Bank.
  • 2003-2005 Naandi Foundation, Hyderabad and Government of Andhra Pradesh
    1. Strategic planning and hands on support to the elementary education quality improvement project in Paderu area of Vishakhapatnam District
    2. Strategic planning and resource support to the Hyderabad City elementary education quality improvement project
  • 2002 European Commission (New Delhi): Planning support and preparation of approach paper to appraisal and pre-appraisal of European Commission support to Government of India’s Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
  • 2002 Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), New Delhi: Country Strategy Paper on Social Sector Reform.
  • 2001 UNICEF, India Country Office, New Delhi: Strategic planning exercises in primary education – as member of Think Tank.
  • 2001 UNFPA, New Delhi: Facilitate 6th Country Programme Cycle strategic planning exercise.
  • 2001 Care, India: Basic Education in India advocacy strategy paper commissioned. This document is an input into their strategy planning exercise in India.
  • 2000 Ford Foundation:
    1. Santiago: Incorporating Women’s Health Concerns in Health Sector Reforms: Key Areas for Strategic Advocacy and Citizen Participation.
    2. Educational programmes for adolescents – with focus on out-of-school children, New Delhi
  • 2000 Nuffic, The Netherlands: Specialised inputs on gender and social equity issues in the European Commission primary and upper primary education project formulation mission
  • 1999 Consultant to SPARC (a Mumbai-based NGO) in a World Banksponsored initiative to review the experience of NGO involvement to promote women’s participation and community involvement in World Bank-supported social sector development projects in India.
  • 1999 N(O)VIB, The Netherlands: Education Project (NGO) Identification in India.
  • 1998-99 DFID, India: Development of an education strategy for reaching out to children and young people in the 11 – 17 age group.
  • 1998 UNICEF, India Country Office, Government of Rajasthan and UNICEF Jaipur: Formulation of Government of Rajasthan policy for women
  • 1997 Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), New Delhi: Rights, social justice and governance, exploring opportunities for NGO support in Rajasthan.
  • 1997 UNESCO: (a) Planning and executing an international training programme for educational administrators to integrate gender issues into monitoring and evaluation system of non-formal education programmes. UNESCO PROAP, Bangkok (b) Co-ordinating regional consultative meetings (South and South east Asia) on Education for Survival jointly with Nirantar, New Delhi, as a run-up to CONFENTEA V, IIE, Hamburg.
  • 1997-98 Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), New Delhi: Team leader - project formulation for a SIDA-assisted Reproductive and Child Health Project in seven districts of Rajasthan, India.
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